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Issac Newton - English mathematician and scientist; developed theory of matter; first to demonstrate the color components of white light with a prism and the reconstruction of these colors into white light with a second prism; researched the optical characteristics of chemical substances; studied gravitation and motion; developed the law of gravitation.
Ole Christensen Roemer - Denmark; was the first to show that the velocity of light is finite.
Gilbert was among the first to divide substances into electrics (spar, glass, amber) and nonelectrics.
William Gilbert - Some say (1544-1603) - English physician; known for his early studies on electricity and magnetism.
His De magnete (1600) propounded the theory that the earth was a giant lodestone with north and south magnetic poles.
Heraclitus - Greek philosopher; first of the Greeks to develop a theory of the human soul; he praised its creative resources and spoke of the importance of self-exploration; he spoke of the logos that is common to all and said that the universe is ruled by logos; he always urged that close attention be given to the polarites and concealed structures emodied in language.
His famous claim that an idividual can and cannot step into the same river twice reveals an interest in criteria of unity and identity; even though all material constituents have undergone change, it is still, in a sence, the same river.